WEB AND WEAVE: Student Researches of UNP Candon (Tuloyna)

Importance of the study


The Philippine Constitution of 1987 states that “The State shall recognize, respect and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their own culture, traditions and institutions.” The attempt to document Tingguian ethnic melodies may eventually develop, enrich and preserve their culture. It also increases their awareness of the richness of their culture and make him proud of it.

The same Constitution provides that “the State shall encourage and support research and studies on the Arts and the Culture.” Hence, this study was conducted. The end result of this will enrich lessons on culture, social studies and character education.

As Brillantes (1987) pointed out, only few transcriptions of Tingguian ethnic melodies have been made. Thus, there is a strong call that these should be written down. Once these are properly documented, they could be used as music materials for schools. Likewise, whenever there are community gatherings, these ethnic songs could balance the dominance of popular forms of entertainment.

To sum it up, this study will eventually spell out that songs whether ethnic or not, Western or Oriental are of the same social significance. They all deal with common interest: to entertain, to amuse, to bring about changes in one’s life and to make one’s place a significant place, too.

Scope and Delimitation

This study revolved only on two Cordilleran songs – the Dung-aw (Baya-o and Sansanna-e) and Uggayam. And documentation was done only in Abra.

Some songs were personally recorded by the researchers during social gatherings and informal sessions and others are taken from recorded melodies from a local radio station which regularly airs Tingguian songs.


1.    Tingguian songs are unique native melodies.

2.    They are handed down from one generation to generation by word of mouth.

3.    Many Tingguian songs have been preserved by Tingguian scholars and cultural workers.

4.    Specifically, Uggayam and Dung-aw are just two Cordilleran songs that bring about closer relationship among the people of Abra.


This portion presents the research design, the date gathering technique used in the study and the treatment of the data.

Research design

This study made use of the descriptive survey type of research. Informal interviews were conducted to gather information about the nature and features of the songs.

The singers of Uggayam were themselves elders of the town of Tubo, Abra, while a dung-aw (baya-o and sansanna-e) was taken from a documented wake.


Research Instrument and Data Gathering Technique

To identify where to document these two Cordilleran songs, the researchers conducted preliminary informal interviews among the Tingguians studying/ residing in Ilocos Sur. After they had gathered a reliable information, they tried to ask permission to the local authorities in order to document the said songs. Hence, they went to Wayangan, Tubo, Abra.

Aside from a digital cassette recorder used by the researchers in documenting Uggayam, a recorded CD on Tingguian songs provided by DZPA, a local radio in Bangued Abra was used.

During a wedding ceremony, the researchers participated and observed how Uggayam was sung by those called by the Mantinidor, the master of ceremonies.

Informal sessions were likewise undertaken to clarify and substantiate information about the songs, especially so one researcher is not a Tingguian himself.

A sample of dung-aw (baya-o and sansanna-e) was taken from a local video center and then analyzed how it fostered closer relationship between the bereaved families and those local folks.

Treatment of Data

The following were followed in the treatment of the recorded/acquired Cordilleran songs:

1.    Textual Analysis of the Characteristics of the Song. Elements of the songs were considered as criteria.

2.    Literal and Figurative Interpretation of the song’s message. The educational and social implications as well as the effects of the songs to interpersonal relationships were taken into consideration.

    (To be continued)